Linaclotide (Linzess) is a prescription drug to relieve symptoms in people who have irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C), or chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). In studies, patients taking Linzess experienced improvement in multiple symptoms including pain or discomfort, bloating, and bowel function.

Linaclotide New Drug Application for IBS-C filed in Japan

Feb. 24, 2016 – A new drug application (NDA) seeking approval of linaclotide for the treatment of adults with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) in Japan was filed with the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare by Astellas Pharma Inc., Ironwood’s partner for linaclotide in Japan.

Linaclotide Phase III Clinical Trial begins in China

September 10, 2013 – Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals today announced the start in China of a Phase III clinical trial of linaclotide for the treatment of adults with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C).

Linaclotide now Available in Europe

June 13, 2013 – Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and Forest Laboratories announced today that linaclotide is now available in some countries in Europe (Germany, the UK, and Nordic countries) to treat IBS-C. It will become available in more European countries during 2013 with the EU brand name Constella.

Linaclotide (Linzess) now Available in U.S. Pharmacies

December 17, 2012 – Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and Forest Laboratories announced today that linaclotide (Linzess) is now available in pharmacies throughout the United States to treat IBS-C and chronic idiopathic constipation in adults aged 18 and older.

FDA Approval Given to Linaclotide (Linzess)

August 30, 2012 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved linaclotide (Linzess) to treat chronic idiopathic constipation and to treat irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) in adults aged 18 and older.

Linzess is a capsule taken once daily on an empty stomach, at least 30 minutes before the first meal of the day. Linzess helps relieve constipation by helping bowel movements occur more often. In IBS-C, it may also help ease abdominal pain.

“No one medication works for all patients suffering from these gastrointestinal disorders,” said Victoria Kusiak, M.D., deputy director of the Office of Drug Evaluation III in FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “With the availability of new therapies, patients and their doctors can select the most appropriate treatment for their condition.”

The safety and effectiveness of Linzess for the management of IBS-C were established in two, double-blind studies. A total of 1,604 patients were randomly assigned to take 290 micrograms of Linzess or a placebo for at least 12 weeks. Results showed Linzess was more effective in reducing the amount of abdominal pain and increasing the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements compared with placebo.

The safety and effectiveness of Linzess for the management of chronic idiopathic constipation also were established in two, double-blind studies. A total of 1,272 patients were randomly assigned to take Linzess at doses of 145 mcg or 290 mcg or a placebo for 12 weeks. Results from these studies showed patients taking Linzess experienced more complete spontaneous bowel movements than those taking the placebo. The 290 mcg dose is not approved for chronic constipation because studies indicated it was no more effective than the 145 mcg dose.

Linzess is approved with a Boxed Warning to alert patients and health care professionals that the drug should not be used in patients 17 years of age and younger. Linzess should not be used in patients with known or suspected mechanical gastrointestinal obstruction. The most common side effect reported in during the clinical studies was diarrhea. 

Ironwood and Forest Report the U.S. FDA has Accepted for Review the New Drug Application for Linaclotide for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation and Chronic Constipation

October 24, 2011 - The FDA has accepted for review the New Drug Application (NDA) for linaclotide to treat irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) and chronic constipation (CC). The review, which will determine whether or not the FDA approves the drug, has a target date of September 2012.

Ironwood Announces Submission of Marketing Authorization Application for Linaclotide for the Treatment of IBS-C in Europe

September 29, 2011 – Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc. today announced that its European partner Almirall, S.A. submitted a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase type-C (GC-C) agonist, for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C).  Once approved, linaclotide will be marketed in Europe under the trademark Constella®. 

Ironwood and Forest Announce Submission of New Drug Application in the U.S. for Linaclotide for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation and Chronic Constipation

August 9, 2011 – Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Forest Laboratories, Inc. today announced they have recently submitted a New Drug Application (NDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase type-C (GC-C) agonist, for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) and chronic constipation (CC).

The submission includes efficacy and safety data from a Phase 3 program comprising four double-blind placebo-controlled trials and two open-label long term safety studies. A total of more than 2,800 patients received a once-daily dose of either linaclotide or placebo across the four placebo-controlled clinical trials: two trials in patients with IBS-C and two trials in patients with CC. In these trials, statistically significant improvements in abdominal and bowel symptoms were achieved for linaclotide-treated patients versus placebo-treated patients for all primary and secondary endpoints.

Safety data collected across the four placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trials demonstrated that diarrhea was the most commonly reported adverse event and led to study discontinuation in 4 percent to 5 percent of linaclotide-treated patients compared to fewer than 1 percent of patients receiving placebo. Additionally, over 3,200 patients have enrolled in ongoing open-label safety studies and more than 1,100 of those patients have received linaclotide for at least 12 months.

Results Positive from Second of Two Phase 3 Trials of Linaclotide for Treatment of Patients with IBS-C

November 1, 2010 – Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Forest Laboratories, Inc. today announced positive top-line results from the second of two Phase 3 clinical trials assessing the efficacy and safety of the investigational drug, linaclotide, in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). The trial was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled conducted in 805 IBS-C patients.  The trial included a 26-week treatment period with patients receiving a once-daily dose of linaclotide or placebo.

Statistically significant improvement was achieved for patients treated with linaclotide compared to placebos for measures of abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort, bloating, and bowel symptoms.  The safety results were consistent with those observed in previous linaclotide trials; no serious side effects related to treatment were reported. Diarrhea is the most common adverse event in linaclotide-treated patients.  

Ironwood and Forest have now reported positive results from two Phase 3 trials in patients with IBS-C and two Phase 3 trials in patients with chronic constipation (CC). The IBS-C trials were also designed to support regulatory submission in Europe, where linaclotide is out-licensed to Almirall; positive top-line results from this study are reported for the E.U. endpoints.

Results Positive from First of Two Phase 3 Trials of Linaclotide for Treatment of Patients with IBS-C

September 13, 2010 – Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Forest Laboratories, Inc. today announced positive top-line results from the first of two Phase 3 clinical trials assessing the efficacy and safety of the investigational drug, linaclotide, in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). The trial was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled conducted in 803 patients.  

Statistically significant improvement was achieved for patients treated with linaclotide compared to placebos for measures of abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort, bloating, and bowel symptoms.  The safety results were consistent with those observed in previous linaclotide trials; no serious side effects related to treatment were reported. Diarrhea is the most common adverse event in linaclotide-treated patients.  The second Phase 3 trial of linaclotide in IBS-C is ongoing. Results are expected later this year.

Ironwood and Forest are co-developing linaclotide in the United States. Ironwood has out-licensed linaclotide to Almirall for development in Europe; to Astellas Pharma Inc. for development in Japan, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand; and to AstraZeneca in China.

Linaclotide Shows Promise as a Treatment for Patients with IBS with Constipation (IBS-C)

November 2009 – Linaclotide™ is a promising, first-in-class drug for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) and chronic constipation. It is now in Phase 3 clinical development.

At therapeutic doses, linaclotide acts locally in the gut. Exposure in the body outside the gut has not been detected. The drug is taken orally once daily.

In previous, Phase 2, trials patients taking linaclotide experienced statistically significant improvement in multiple symptoms. Over a 12-week treatment period, patients with IBS-C reported reduced abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating, as well as improved bowel function. Over a 4-week treatment period, patients with chronic constipation reported reduced constipation, abdominal discomfort, and bloating.

No serious side effects related to treatment were reported in the trials. Diarrhea was the most commonly reported side effect in both groups.

About Phase 3 Trials

Phase 3 clinical trials involve studies of people to confirm a drug’s safety and effectiveness. Appropriate regulatory agencies review trial results for approval before the drug can be prescribed.

About the New Drug Application Process

The New Drug Application (NDA) is the vehicle through which drug sponsors formally propose that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approve a new pharmaceutical for sale and marketing in the U.S.

The goals of the NDA are to provide enough information to permit FDA reviewer to reach the following key decisions:

  • Whether the drug is safe and effective in its proposed use(s), and whether the benefits of the drug outweigh the risks.
  • Whether the drug's proposed labeling (package insert) is appropriate, and what it should contain.
  • Whether the methods used in manufacturing the drug and the controls used to maintain the drug's quality are adequate to preserve the drug's identity, strength, quality, and purity.

What are Phases?

Treatment trials or studies are in phases:

  • Phase 1 tests a new drug or treatment in a small group to evaluate its safety, determine a safe dosage range, and identify side effects;
  • Phase 2 expands the study to a larger group of people to see if it is effective and to further evaluate its safety;
  • Phase 3 expands the study to an even larger group of people to confirm its effectiveness, monitor side effects, and collect information that will allow the drug or treatment to be used safely.
News
Industry Treatment News
Eluxadoline (Viberzi)
Eosinophilic Esophagitis Study
Gattex
Linaclotide (Linzess)
Linaclotide Study for IBS in Children
Linaclotide Study for FC in Children
Medical News
Medical News - Archive
Events
Special Events & Meetings
Press Releases
2016-0801 Learn the Facts About Gastroparesis
2016-0405 Think You Have IBS? Find Out For Sure Before Starting a Treatment
2015-1123 Is it More than Simple Heartburn? Ask Your Doctor.
2015-7-30 Gastroparesis is a Hidden Medical Condition for Many
2015-0330 Online Survey Looks to Help Improve Outcomes for those with IBS
2014-1119 Persistent Heartburn May Be a Sign of GERD
2014-0826 Lack of Awareness of Gastroparesis May Impact Medical Care
2014-0326 IFFGD Marks IBS Awareness Month with Launch of Mobile App
2014-0225 IFFGD Research Grants to Study Gastroparesis
2013-1106 15 Tips for GERD Awareness Week
2013-0626 New DHA.org
2013-0412 IFFGD Presents 2013 Research Awards
2013-0401 Turning Attention to Returning Vets
2012-1109 Banish Frequent Heartburn by Burning More Calories
2012-0321 April is IBS Awareness Month: A Serious Issue for Veterans
2006-0418 Natl Commission
2001-1119 Heartburn or Heart Attack
2006-0321 Women's Health
2011-1130 Is Your Child's Reflux/Spitting Up A Point of Concern?
2006-0202 IBS or Something Else
2011-0412 IFFGD Research Award Winners
2005-1125 GERD Costs
2005-0412 IBS Awareness
2011-0329 IBS Signs You Should Not Ignore
2010-1118 GERD Difference
2004-1125 Heartburn & Heartache
2004-0929 Norton Honored
2009-1109 GERD at Night
2010-0517 US House Resolution for IBS
2010-1001 Heartburn or GERD?
2006-1116 GERD & Holidays
2007-0401 IBS Myths
2009-0417 IFFGD Research Award Recipients
2004-0525 IBS Travel Tips
2007-1118 When Is Simple Heartburn Not So Simple?
2008-0331 Dealing with Digestive Disorders
2004-0101 IFFGD Conference
2004-0408 IBS Medical Care
2007-0718 Proposed FDA Funding Applauded
2003-1117 GERD Treatment
2003-0401 IFFGD Research Awards
2003-0401 IBS Awareness
2002-1102 Heartburn Caution
2002-0423 IBS in Real World
2002-0423 IBS-C Treatment
2002-0402 IBS & Lost Potential
2001-0322 Patients First
1998-0401 IBS Millions Suffer
1997-1114 Research & Women's Health
Commentary
Misunderstood Functional GI Disorders
IBS is No Joking Matter
For Media
Reporters' Guides
Media Contact Form

Join the conversation

join conversation

Keep up-to-date on the latest news, stories, tips, research highlights, and more!

Sign up for eNewsletter

Connect through Facebook

Follow us on twitter